In this chapter we will take a closer look at some of the variety of types of CBD oil products and compare their qualities. As the industry grows, some of these terms have changed or evolved.
CBD from PCR Hemp vs. CBD from Marijuana
Essential oils can also be extracted from marijuana the same way they can be extracted from hemp. The essential oils made from marijuana are correctly referred to as cannabis oil. Cannabis oil is only legal in countries which allow the cultivation of marijuana. Extracts made from marijuana may contain traces of CBD, but will also contain enough THC which is getting a person “high”. Therefore, cannabis oil is considered to be a controlled substance to avoid the unwanted effect.
For the purposes of this chapter, we are only concerned with CBD oil produced from PCR hemp. We are not discussing any THC-containing cannabis oils made from marijuana or the extracts of industrial hemp which have low levels of cannabinoids and terpenes.
Raw CBD Oil vs. CBD Concentrate
When the essential oils of the hemp plant are first extracted, the resulting product is called or considered raw hemp extract. This raw extract can be put through a series of distillation and filtration processes to remove unwanted compounds which includes waxes and chlorophyll to produce various classes of oils differing in purity and CBD content. These refined oils are referred to as CBD concentrate or CBD distillate.
Full Spectrum CBD Oil
There is another class of compounds called terpenes. Terpenes are a class of volatile hydrocarbon compounds produced by the cannabis plant as well as most other plants. Terpenes readily evaporate at room temperature, and our noses are highly sensitive to them.
Terpenes can also have powerful effects on our bodies. In fact, terpenes have been utilized by humans for millennia in a healing modality known as aromatherapy. For example, the scent of citrus is produced primarily by a combination of limonene and pinene, both of which are thought to elevate mood.
Some common terpenes include linalool, myrcene, caryophyllene, limonene, terpinolene, citronellol and camphene. The traditional uses of these terpenes and others vary, but they include use as an antibacterial, anti-fungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or calming agent.
Some terpenes may act as neurotransmitters. They can also act as serotonin uptake inhibitors, enhance norepinephrine activity and increase dopamine activity, all of which are known to produce antidepressant effects.
More importantly, terpenes also act on cannabinoid receptors and are known to modify the effects of cannabinoids.
Raw PCR hemp extract contains terpenes as well as other cannabinoid compounds similar to CBD. Because it retains the natural balance of cannabinoids and terpenes found in the original plant, we refer to these products as full spectrum oils.
Broad Spectrum CBD Oil
Broad spectrum CBD oil and Full spectrum CBD oil have a lot similarities. Full spectrum CBD oil, as mentioned before, retains the original concentrations of cannabinoids and terpenes found in raw PCR hemp extract. Broad spectrum CBD oil also contains concentrations of beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes but has all trace amounts of THC removed and is ideal for those who want absolutely no THC in their CBD products.
CBD can also be isolated and purified. Pure CBD is known as CBD isolate. In their pure form, and at room temperature, cannabinoids are solid crystals. Purified cannabinoids are colorless and odorless. CBD isolate can be consumed directly or used as an additive in other preparations such as edibles and beverages; however, it is lacking of the beneficial terpenes and other cannabinoids found naturally in the plant.
CBD-Rich Oil/Phytocannabinoid-Rich (PCR)
Another term you may come across is CBD-rich oil. This term is generally used to label a CBD oil which has gone through some initial filtration and distillation steps to remove unwanted compounds such as chlorophyll and waxes. The final/resulting product has a higher concentration of CBD than the raw extract, therefore the term CBD-rich oil.
The term CBD-infused can be used to describe either a product which has been infused with purified CBD isolate. It also can refer to a product which has been infused with a CBD-rich, full spectrum or broad spectrum concentrate. We advise all the customers to look for the properly labeled product which will specify which ingredients were used. If the ingredients include “CBD isolate,” then the product is not full spectrum. If the ingredients include “CBD-rich hemp oil (or extract)” or “full spectrum CBD oil,” then obviously you’re getting a full spectrum product. It’s important to know which is in a product because they produce different effects.
A List of CBD Oil Products
To summarize, there are a variety of products which contain varying levels of CBD as well as other cannabinoids and terpenes.
- Hemp seed oil — oil produced from hemp seeds. Does not contain CBD.
- Raw industrial hemp extract — a low-quality source of CBD oil.
- Raw PCR hemp extract — a high-quality, full spectrum product which is rich in CBD and contains all the naturally occurring compounds, including cannabinoids and terpenes.
- CBD concentrate or distillate — a full spectrum or broad spectrum product from which unwanted compounds have been removed.
- CBD isolate — purified CBD, does not contain other beneficial terpenes and cannabinoids.
- CBD-rich oil/Phytocannabinoid-Rich (PCR) — either full spectrum or broad spectrum CBD concentrate or oil infused with CBD concentrate.
- Broad spectrum oil — an oil rich in CBD and the beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes present in hemp EXCEPT for THC.
- CBD-infused — generally refers to a product infused with pure CBD, but can be also us kudv ed sometimes to refer to a full spectrum product.